Inadequate vitamin D supply in Germany
According to the current study on adult health in Germany (DEGS), the supply of vitamin D in Germany is insufficient. Vitamin D is naturally found in salmon, mushrooms or matjes. The iodine supply is also in need of improvement, as the study authors emphasize.
The overall vitamin D supply to the German population is insufficient. Around 1/3 are poorly supplied with serum concentrations of <30 nmol / l 25-hydroxyvitamin-D and only just under 40% are sufficient. 86% are adequately supplied with folate. The potassium supply is also ensured. For 30% of adults, the iodine supply is still in need of improvement. Almost all of them are more than adequately supplied with sodium. In 90% of women and 93% of men, sodium intake is above the reference value. With an average of 9 or 10 g / day, they also take in too much table salt.
For the 13th DGE nutrition report, the nationwide "Study on Adult Health in Germany" (DEGS) presented representative data for the supply of vitamin D, folate, sodium, potassium and iodine. The data are based on clinical-chemical analyzes of blood and urine samples, which enable a reliable assessment of the nutrient supply.
An adequate supply of nutrients is easiest to achieve through a balanced and wholesome diet in the form of a varied mixed diet, which mainly consists of vegetable (cereals, vegetables, fruits) and partly animal foods (milk, fish, eggs and little meat) consists.
Overall, vitamin D supply in Germany is insufficient
Vitamin D plays an important role in bone metabolism. In DEGS1, around 30% of adults had serum concentrations of <30 nmol / l 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D and are therefore poorly supplied with vitamin D. Older people are at risk for vitamin D deficiency. While the concentrations in men changed only slightly across all age groups, the proportion of women with inadequate care increased with increasing age. The vitamin D status is subject to strong seasonal fluctuations. For adequate care, the DGE recommends exposing your face, hands and arms uncovered and without sun protection two to three times a week between March and October. Sunburns should be avoided at all costs. For people who belong to the risk group, it is necessary to take a vitamin D supplement to ensure the vitamin D supply.
The supply situation of folate in Germany is relatively good
Folate is important for cell growth, division and differentiation. Good care is therefore particularly important during pregnancy and in phases of growth. Folate concentrations measured in serum can be used to estimate the supply situation in the population. The DEGS data show that the median serum folate for adults aged 18 to 79 years is 7.5 ng / ml. Adequate folate supply is assumed for serum folate concentrations of ≥ 4.4 ng / ml. According to this, about 86% of the adult population in Germany is adequately supplied with folate. However, the folate concentrations recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for women of childbearing potential for the prevention of embryonic malformations are not achieved by most women. The DGE recommends that women who want or could get pregnant, and pregnant women in the first third of pregnancy, take 400 µg folic acid daily as a folic acid preparation so that the unborn child can develop optimally.
The majority of sodium intake is above the D-A-CH reference value
In 93% of men and 90% of women, the sodium intake of the population in Germany was above the D-A-CH reference value of 1.5 g / day for adults. The median sodium intake in DEGS was 4.0 g for men and 3.4 g sodium / day for women, which corresponds to approx. 10 g and 9 g of table salt daily. Sodium and chloride are mainly absorbed through table salt (sodium chloride). For most adults in Germany, table salt intake is above the DGE's guideline value of up to 6 g / day. In a recent statement, the DGE concludes that the connection between table salt intake and blood pressure is clear: A high table salt intake increases the risk of high blood pressure, which in turn is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
Potassium supply is ensured
Potassium plays an important role in regulating the water balance, the conduction of stimuli via the nerves and the activation of enzymes in the metabolism of the muscle. A potassium-rich diet can lower blood pressure in people with high blood pressure and reduce the risk of stroke. For potassium, an estimate of adequate intake for women and men of 4,000 mg / day is given. The DEGS study determined the potassium excretion in the urine and thus estimated the potassium intake in the diet. For women aged 18 to 79, the estimated potassium intake was approximately 3,900 mg / day and for men of the same age approximately 4,300 mg / day.
Iodine supply not yet optimal
Iodine is a vital trace element that must be taken in regularly with food. It works a. as part of the thyroid hormones. According to the data in the sample, the iodine supply is still unsatisfactory in around 30% of the population. Action is needed above all against the background of the targeted table salt reduction. In order to achieve an adequate iodine supply and to ensure it in the long term, measures are required that promote the increased use of iodized table salt in the food industry and in the craft. The DGE recommends considering increasing the iodine content in table salt. Due to the current data situation, there is no need to fear iodine over-supply to the German population.